The Adaptability of Philip K. Dick
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Born 16th December 1928 and rising to prominence in the 1950s, Philip K. Dick has become a household name who boasts a literary afterlife most science fiction writers can only dream of. Yet, intriguingly, it is rarely his original work which lasts in the cultural imagination of society. Rather, it is the adaptations of his work which have achieved greater success and recognition. What is it about his writing, then, that lends itself to successful adaptation, and why are the original texts so overlooked?
Image courtesy of Ron Frazier on FlickrOriginality and Adaptation P.K.D.’s preeminent work, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, is typically overshadowed by its infamous descendent, Blade Runner, often to the detriment of its own merit. The novel is frequently remarketed as ‘the inspiration for films such as Blade Runner and Blade Runner 2049’, rather than a self-contained novel with its own intrinsic worth. Blade Runner is, of course, the most commonly cited instance of P.K.D.’s adaptability, but other noteworthy adaptations include Amazon’s adaptations of The Man in the High Castle and The Commuter in 2015 and 2017 respectively; the 1990 and 2012 iterations of Total Recall (adapted from We Can Remember It for You Wholesale); and Spielberg’s adaptation of The Minority Report in 2002. This is to say nothing of the popular science fiction films and television for which P.K.D.’s works are merely a primary source of inspiration. To broach the subject of adaptability, I think it’s important to start with the medium of these texts and their adaptations. The end of the twentieth century saw a radical shift from text to film as the dominant medium for science fiction narrative. It’s difficult to think of contemporary science fiction writers who have achieved the same type of fame that directors such as Ridley Scott have achieved through film. Atwood is perhaps the biggest exception to this rule, whose 1985 novel The Handmaid’s Tale has certainly achieved notoriety; but even then, a significant portion of that notoriety might be attributed the recent TV adaptation on Hulu. For the most part, in the 21st century, all eyes are glued to the big screen of Hollywood, or the smaller, but equally influential, screens of video streaming services such as Amazon Prime and Netflix. Simulation and Replication Tensions between originality and replication, between authenticity and simulation, and crossing the thresholds of these ostensible binaries underpin much of P.K.D.’s writing. In his short story, The Commuter, for example, the protagonist discovers a town that does not officially exist. Commuters looking to travel to this destination blink out of existence as soon as the unreality of the town is mentioned, and upon venturing there, the protagonist finds that the town slowly unravels before him. In Do Androids Dream, P.K.D. meditates on the authenticity of replicants and their status – are they human or not? Can they feel empathy? How do the relationships between human and replicant manifest? Are they merely an empty copy of humanity, or authentic in their own right? Are they better than humans? Some of these questions might also be applied to adaptations of P.K.D.’s work. In questioning the nature of humanity, and the consequences of replication, we might also question the consequences of adaptations on the nature of the original. What is the relationship between source and adaptation? Do adaptations change our feelings toward the source? Which is better? Visions and Visuals I don’t think it’s unreasonable to say that most of us read backward to P.K.D., beginning with the aforementioned adaptations. Consequently, these adaptations become the yardstick by which we measure the source. This is not a particularly uncommon practice – our visions of Classical literature are often inflected by (and mediated through) the Renaissance, the Romantics, and the Victorians, for example – but it certainly changes something about the way we read them. How could we read P.K.D.’s visions of the future in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? without first thinking of Scott’s translation of these visions into visuals? The swathes of gritty, gothic shots of post-apocalyptic Los Angeles feel as though they are permanently embedded in the public's subconscious.
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